Iowa

 

NOTE TO USER:

While every attempt has been made to ensure accuracy, local practices and procedures may vary.  We encourage every user to consult with an experienced juvenile justice practitioner in the jurisdiction to determine how best to proceed in any particular situation.       

 

 

Juvenile Collateral Consequences in the State of Iowa

            In Iowa, juvenile records are more accessible to the general public than they are in other jurisdictions such as New Hampshire.[1]  Consequently, juvenile delinquents in Iowa may face more collateral consequences than delinquents in other states where access is more restricted.[2]  Taking a juvenile into custody is not considered an arrest in Iowa, but records and files of a criminal or juvenile justice agency are public records, with some exceptions.[3]  Official juvenile court records are also public records, but are only available online or through an electronic data report after the juvenile is adjudicated delinquent.[4]  This results in easy access to juvenile records for employers and others, so long as the records have not been sealed.

            Although the age of majority is eighteen in Iowa, much of the information maintained in computer data storage systems will not be removed until the juvenile turns 21.[5]  Furthermore, juvenile records are not automatically sealed when a minor attains the age of majority.[6]  Instead, the minor must request to have the records sealed by submitting a petition to the court.[7]  This petition will only be approved for delinquents that meet certain statutory requirements.[8]

 

Understanding the Justice System

            The Iowa juvenile court has jurisdiction over any person under the age of eighteen who is accused of a legal violation, and any person over the age of eighteen who is standing trial for an offense committed prior to his or her eighteenth birthday.[9]  However, the juvenile court does not have jurisdiction over certain misdemeanors committed by minors involving cigarettes, traffic violations, and curfew violations.[10]  Instead of being tried in the juvenile court, these misdemeanors are subject to prosecution in the same manner as adult offenders.[11]  Juvenile court jurisdiction is further excluded for children who are sixteen or older and are being charged with possessing a firearm or an offensive weapon while attempting to distribute a controlled substance.[12]  This also applies when a minor who is at least sixteen is charged with using a firearm in the course of gang activity that constitutes a felony.[13]  The juvenile court also loses jurisdiction over any person over the age of seventeen accused of animal torture.[14]

            If the juvenile court finds that a child engaged in illegal conduct, the court may enter an order adjudicating the child to have committed a delinquent act.[15]  A delinquent act is any violation of state law or local ordinance that would constitute a public offense if committed by an adult.[16]  After filing a petition alleging delinquent conduct and prior to a hearing on the merits, either the minor or the county attorney may request that the juvenile court waive its jurisdiction so the minor can be prosecuted as an adult or a youthful offender.[17]  The court conducts a hearing to make this determination.[18]

            The court may allow a minor to be tried as an adult if it finds that: (1) the child is fourteen years of age or older; (2) there is probable cause to believe that the child has committed the delinquent act that would constitute a public offense; and (3) the state has established that there is no reasonable prospect of rehabilitating the child, and waiver would be in the best interest of the child and the community.[19]  The court may allow the minor to be prosecuted as a youthful offender if it finds that: (1) the child is fifteen years of age or younger; (2) there is probable cause to believe that the child has committed a delinquent act that would constitute a public offense; and (3) the state has established that there is no reasonable prospect of rehabilitating the child prior to his eighteenth birthday.[20]  In making its decision, the court will take into consideration the nature of the alleged delinquent act, the nature and extent of the child’s past criminal conduct, and the programs or facilities available for rehabilitative treatment.[21]

            In Iowa, youthful offenders are subject to criminal prosecution as opposed to being adjudicated.[22]  Although youthful offenders are tried in adult courts, they are transferred back to the juvenile court for sentencing.[23]  Youthful offenders remain in the jurisdiction of the juvenile justice system until they are summoned back to the adult court, prior to their eighteenth birthday, to determine whether youthful offender status should continue or if another sentencing option should be imposed.[24]  At this time, the court can continue youthful offender status, sentence the offender to prison, impose probation, or discharge the youth.[25]

 

Notification of Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Records

            In Iowa, neither the court nor the juvenile’s attorney has the responsibility of informing the minor of the collateral consequences he may face after a guilty plea or being adjudicated delinquent.[26] However, an attorney commits reversible error if he misinforms his client about collateral consequences, and the client relies upon the erroneous information in making his decision to plead guilty.[27]

 

Treatment of Juvenile Arrest Records

Are photographs and fingerprints routinely collected?

            A juvenile is not automatically fingerprinted or photographed when taken into custody.[28]  However, there are two exceptions to this rule.  First, a juvenile will be fingerprinted and photographed when taken into custody for committing an offense other than a simple misdemeanor.[29]  Second, a minor’s fingerprints can be taken when an officer has reasonable grounds to believe that fingerprints found during the investigation of an offense belong to a particular child.[30]   In such instances, the child’s fingerprints can be taken for the purpose of comparison.[31]  If the comparison is negative, the finger print card and any other copies of the fingerprints are immediately destroyed.[32]  If the comparison is positive, the fingerprint card and other copies of the fingerprints are delivered to the division of criminal investigation of the Department of Public Safety.[33]

            Once collected, the fingerprints and photographs may be viewed by police officers for investigation purposes.[34]  The juvenile court may also authorize other individuals to view these records if it finds it would serve the public interest.[35]  These records are destroyed if the prosecutor fails to enter a petition alleging that the child is a delinquent, or after a petition is filed, the child is not adjudicated a delinquent or put on youthful offender status.[36]

Is DNA routinely collected?   

            A juvenile will be required to provide a DNA sample if he is adjudicated delinquent for the commission of a felony, has been found to be a sexually violent predator, or is required to register as a sex offender.[37]

Are juvenile arrest records made public?

            In Iowa, taking a child into custody is not considered an arrest, and criminal or juvenile justice agency records related to juveniles are public records.[38]  However, an exception exists for criminal history data, intelligence data, law enforcement investigatory files, and juvenile justice social files, which are deemed confidential.[39]  These records can be sealed, unless the juvenile court waives its jurisdiction over the child.[40]

 

Treatment of juvenile Court Records

What does a juvenile court record contain?    

            Official juvenile records include records of all juvenile court proceedings where the court has jurisdiction.[41]  This includes, but is not limited to, the docket, complaints, petitions, pleadings, motions and applications, any summons, notice, subpoena or other proofs of publication, transcripts of court proceedings and any findings, judgments, decrees or orders of the court.[42]

Who can access juvenile court records?

            Official juvenile court records alleging delinquency are public records.[43]  However, records filed prior to January 1, 2007 are subject to confidentiality orders and sealing.[44]  Those filed after January 1, 2007, in addition to being subject to confidentiality orders and sealing, are not available to the public or any governmental agency through the Internet or electronic data reports unless the child has been adjudicated delinquent.[45]  There is an exception that grants certain individuals electronic access to juvenile court records prior to a delinquent adjudication.[46] These people include: (1) the judge and professional court staff, including juvenile court officers; (2) the child’s counsel or guardian ad litem; (3) the county attorney and the county attorney’s assistants; (4) a court, court professional staff, adult probation officers involved with the preparation of a presentence report concerning a person who prior thereto had been the subject of a juvenile court proceeding; (5) a state or local law enforcement agency; (6) the state public defender; and (7) the division of criminal and juvenile justice planning of the division of human rights.[47]

            Furthermore, if a juvenile is adjudicated delinquent for the commission of a violent crime and placed in detention, the victim will receive information about the delinquent’s release from the Department of Human Services.[48]  The Department provides information regarding when the delinquent will be released, and whether he will be returning to the community where the victim resides.[49]

             

Sealing Delinquency Files or Records

Do juveniles have the ability to seal arrest and court records?

            To seal a juvenile record, a person must submit an application to the court.[50] The record will be sealed if the court finds that: (1) the applicant is at least eighteen years of age, and at least two years have passed since the last official action on the person’s case; (2) the person has not subsequently been conviction of a felony or an aggravated misdemeanor; and (3) the person was not placed on youthful offender status, transferred back to district court after the youthful offender's eighteenth birthday, and sentenced for the offense which precipitated the youthful offender placement.[51]  However, juveniles who have committed such offenses can still have records sealed if the court finds that both (1) and (2) are applicable, and concludes that sealing the record is in the best interest of the person and the public.[52]

            If a juvenile was ordered to pay restitution to a victim because of a delinquent act and failed to do so, the records in the case may be sealed, but the name of the court, the title of the action, and the court's file number will remain unsealed.[53]  Further, the restitution amount will be a judgment and lien until the restitution is paid in full.[54]

Who has access to sealed juvenile records?   

            Inspection of sealed records will only be permitted by court order.[55]  Once a record has been sealed, a notice of the sealing order is sent to all agencies or persons who have the juvenile’s record.[56]  These persons or agencies send the records to the court that issued the sealing order.[57]  All index references to the sealed record are deleted, and the records are considered not to exist. After sealing a record, an agency that receives an inquiry about a minor’s record must respond by saying that no such record exists.[58]

How will sealed juvenile records affect a juvenile in their future?

            Juvenile court records alleging delinquency are public records.[59]  However, a sealed record is no longer in existence as a matter of law.[60]  Therefore, when the juvenile court or an agency receives an inquiry about a juvenile’s record that has been sealed, the agency will respond that no record exists.[61]

Can juvenile record be expunged?

            Although there is not a formal process for expungement, information in computer data storage systems may be removed when a juvenile reaches the age of twenty-one.[62]  This occurs only if the juvenile court did not transfer jurisdiction to adult court and the juvenile was not convicted of a serious or aggravated felony or misdemeanor between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one.[63]  For these offenses, a juvenile’s records are stored in the same manner as adult records.[64]

 

Employment

Can juvenile records be viewed for employment purposes?  

            Upon written application, criminal history data may be provided to any person or agency.[65]  Criminal history data is maintained by the Department of Public Safety, and includes information about arrests, adjudications, custody, dispositions, corrections, and convictions.[66] Because sealed records are legally non-existent, applicants will not be able to view these records.[67]  Furthermore, there are certain agencies required to conduct criminal history checks, including health care facilities[68] and children’s centers.[69]

How should juveniles respond to inquiries about their record on job applications?

            If a juvenile’s record has been sealed, the juvenile can say that there is no record in response to inquiry.[70]  As a matter of law, a sealed record no longer exists.[71]  However, information about unsealed delinquency adjudications should be disclosed, because these records are publicly accessible and can be obtained by employers.[72]

What about Military Service?

           Military service organizations require that enlistees be in good moral standing.  To ensure this standard is met, potential enlistees must report any offense that resulted in either conviction or adjudication, including juvenile offenses. 

Collateral Consequences Affecting Students

Can a complaint or charge brought against a juvenile affect elementary or high school education?

            In Iowa, a student may be expelled for any violation of the rules and regulations established by the school board.[73]  Suspension also occurs when the student’s presence is detrimental to the best interest of the school.[74]  This would include instances where a student has committed an assault on school grounds or at a school sponsored function.[75]  However, a school cannot suspend a student based solely upon immoral conduct performed outside of school because these activities are not prohibited by any school rule or regulation.[76]

If a youth is adjudicated delinquent or has admitted to committing a crime, is there any effect on elementary or high school education?

            Although a juvenile cannot be suspended for actions that occur outside of the school, the school superintendent is provided with information about a juvenile who has been adjudicated delinquent.[77]  The juvenile court will notify the school superintendent or the authorities in charge of a private school that the juvenile attends if the juvenile is adjudicated for an offense that would be indictable if committed by an adult.[78]

What about postsecondary education?

           Applications often request information about any delinquency adjudications, rather than just "arrest" or "convictions".  Students should read the application carefully to be sure what information is being requested, and be prepared to provide additional information to provide context for the situation.  The Department of Education guidelines for Federal Financial Aid, which limit aid in relation to drug convictions, do not apply to offenses where the applicant was prosecuted as a juvenile. 

Collateral Consequences to Receipt of Public Benefits & Privileges

Will a juvenile record affect chances of becoming a foster parent?

            Any person seeking licensure as a foster parent must submit fingerprints to the Department of Public Safety to conduct a criminal history check.[79]  The fingerprints will also be sent to the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Department of Justice for a national criminal history check.[80]

Will a juvenile record affect chances of adopting a child? 

            Each adoption applicant and anyone living in the home who is fourteen years of age or older will be subject to a background check.[81] The background check is used to determine whether they have any founded child abuse reports, criminal convictions, or has been placed on the sex offender registry.[82]

Can a juvenile record affect a driver’s license or permit?

            A juvenile may have a license suspended after the commission of any of the following delinquent acts: (1) alcohol consumption or intoxication in a public area; (2) underage purchase or attempt to purchase alcohol; (3) certain drug offenses; (4) two or more offenses of illegally providing someone else with alcohol; (5) an assault on an employee of the child’s school; or (6) carrying a dangerous weapon on school grounds.[83]  The delinquent’s license will be suspended for one year if adjudicated for any of these offenses.[84]  However, the child may be issued a temporary restricted license or school license if otherwise eligible.[85]

Will a juvenile record affect the ability to obtain occupational and gaming licenses?

            All persons, with the exception of law enforcement officers, who work at a racing or gaming facility are required to be properly licensed.[86]  Applicants may be fingerprinted and are required to fill out an application that inquires about convictions and adjudications of delinquency.[87] Any person who knowingly makes a false statement on the application is guilty of an aggravated misdemeanor.[88]  A license will be denied if the applicant has, within the last five years, had one of the following: (1) a felony conviction; (2) a delinquent adjudication or a conviction for an offense involving theft or fraudulent activity of $500 or more; (3) a delinquent adjudication or a conviction for an offense involving the use of an alias in connection with fraud; or (4) a delinquent adjudication or a conviction for an offense involving ownership, operation, or an interest in any bookmaking or other illegal enterprise or if the applicant is or has been connected or associated with any illegal enterprise.[89]

            If the conviction or the adjudication of delinquency occurred more than five years prior to the application, a license will not be issued unless it’s determined that there is sufficient evidence of rehabilitation.[90]  Sufficient evidence of rehabilitation must also be shown when the minor was adjudicated delinquent for a serious or aggravated misdemeanor or multiple misdemeanors.[91]

 

 

Implications for Future Court Proceedings

Can a juvenile adjudication be considered when in waiver proceedings?

            A prior adjudication may be used as a factor when the juvenile court considers waiving jurisdiction to adult criminal court.

Can the Court order physical or mental health assessment?

           Once a juvenile has been adjudicated delinquent, the court has authority to order a physical or mental examination of a child if it finds, pursuant to a hearing, that the examination is necessary.  When possible, the evaluation should be on an outpatient basis, but the court may also commit the child to a hospital or other facility for up to 30 days and the usual civil committment protections do not apply.  See Iowa Code Chapter 232.49 (2012).  In addition, under Iowa Code Chapter 915.42, if a Juvenile is adjudicated for an act of sexual assault, the county attorney may petition the court for an order requiring the juvenile to submit to an HIV test.  There are several findings the court would have to make to order the test, and the juvenile would have a right to counsel in the hearing.

 

Special Offender Registries

When will a juvenile have to register as a sex offender?        

            In Iowa, a juvenile is required to register as a sex offender in the same manner as an adult.[92]  Therefore, any minor who is convicted or adjudicated delinquent for the commission of a sexual offense is required to register as a sex offender so long as he resides, is employed, or attends school in the state of Iowa.[93]  However, the juvenile court can modify or suspend the registration requirement if it finds good cause to do so.[94]  This does not apply to juveniles who were at least fourteen years of age when they committed an offense by force, the threat of serious violence, involuntary use of drugs, or by rendering the victim unconscious.[95]  In the event that the registration requirement is altered, notification of the decision will be sent from the juvenile court to the school superintendent where the juvenile is enrolled.[96]

Who has access to the sex offender registry? 

            The Department of Public Safety is responsible for maintaining an online database of sexual offenders that is accessible to the general public.[97]  The online website may be searched by name, county, city, zip code, and geographic radius.[98]  The following information about the offender is available through the website:[99]

  1. Date of birth
  2. Name, nickname, and aliases
  3. Photographs
  4. Physical description
  5. Place of residence
  6. The offense that caused the registration requirement
  7. Whether the offender is subject to residency restrictions
  8. Whether the offender is excluded from entering certain zones.

            The Juvenile Justice Agency can provide relevant information from the sex offender registry to other state agencies, a sex offender registry in another jurisdiction, or the federal government.[100]  The agency can also provide the general public with any information that is available on the online database.[101]  This includes public or private agencies, childcare facilities, organizations, and employers.[102]  When a sex offender moves into a school district, the county sheriff provides information about the sex offender to the administrative office of the school district and to any private school near the offender’s residence.[103]  The notice sent to the school contains the information that can be found on the sex offender website.[104]

            Furthermore, individuals can contact the local sheriff to obtain information about sex offenders.[105]  This request may be made in writing, via telephone, or in person.[106]  Using this method, the requesting party may obtain all the information listed about the sex offender on the website, as well as certain additional information including educational institutions, employment information and temporary lodging information.[107]           

                                                                                                                                                                 
Is there any relief for those who are on the sex offender registry?           

            A juvenile who is required to register as a sex offender can petition the court to modify the registration requirement.  The juvenile may request a modification if: (1) he is not under the supervision of the juvenile court and the registration requirement was implemented at least two years prior to the application for modification; (2) all of the required sex offender treatment programs have been successfully completed; (3) the department of corrections agrees to perform a risk assessment on the juvenile, and he is found to be at low risk of reoffending; and (4) the offender is not incarcerated at the time of the application.[108]

            If the court modifies the juvenile’s registration requirement, the court will send a copy of the order to the Department of Public Safety, the sheriff of the county where the sex offender resides, the county attorney, and the victim.[109]

 

 

 




[1] See Chapter on Collateral Consequences in the state of New Hampshire

[2] See Id.

[3] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.149(1) (2012).

[4] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.147(2) (2012).

[5] Iowa Code Ann. § 692.17(1) (2012).

[6] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150 (2012). 

[7] Id.

[8] Id.

[9]  Iowa Code Ann. § 232.8 (2012); Iowa Code Ann. §232.2(5) (2012).

[10] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.8(1)(b) (2012).

[11]Id.

[12] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.8(1)(c) (2012)

[13] Id.

[14] Id.

[15] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.47(10) (2012). 

[16] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.47(12) (2012).

[17] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.45(1) (2012).

[18] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.45(2) (2012).

[19] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.45(6) (2012).

[20] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.45(7) (2012).

[21] Iowa Code Ann. §232.45(8) (2012);Iowa Code Ann. § 232.45(9) (2012). 

[22] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.45(1) (2012).

[23] Iowa Code Ann. §907.3A(1) (2012).

[24] Iowa Code Ann. §907.3A(2) (2012).

[25] Iowa Code Ann. §§907.3A(2)-(3) (2012).

[26] State v. Hallock, 765 N.W.2d 598, 605 (Iowa Ct. App. 2009).

[27] Stevens v. State, 513 N.W.2d 727, 728 (Iowa 1994).

[28]Iowa Code Ann. § 232.148(1) (2012).

[29] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.148(2) (2012).

[30] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.148(3) (2012).

[31] Id.

[32] Id.

[33] Id.

[34] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.148(4) (2012).

[35] Id.

[36] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.148(5) (2012).

[37] Iowa Code Ann. § 81.2(4) (2012).

[38] Iowa Code Ann. §§ 232.149(1)-(2) (2012).

[39] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.149(2) (2012).

[40] Id.

[41]  Iowa Code Ann. § 232.2(38) (2012).

[42] Id.

[43] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.147(2) (2012).

[44] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.147(2)(a) (2012).

[45] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.147(2)(b) (2012).

[46] Id.

[47] Id.

[48] Iowa Code Ann. § 915.29 (2012).

[49] Iowa Code Ann. § 915.29(1) (2012).

[50]  Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150(1)(a) (2012). 

[51] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150(1) (2012). 

[52] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150(1)(b) (2012). 

[53] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150(1)(c) (2012). 

[54] Id.

[55] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150(6) (2012). 

[56] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150(3) (2012).

[57] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150(4)(a) (2012). 

[58] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150(5) (2012). 

[59] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.147(2) (2012).

[60] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150(5) (2012). 

[61] Id.

[62] Iowa Code Ann. § 692.17(1) (2012).

[63] Id.

[64] Id.

[65] Iowa Code Ann. § 692.2 (2012).

[66] Iowa Code Ann. § § 692.1(5) (2012).

[67] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150(5) (2012). 

[68] Prior to hiring a new employee, the facility requests a criminal history check from the Department of Public Safety.  Iowa Code Ann. § 135C.33 (2012).  This includes information regarding juvenile arrests and adjudications. Iowa Code Ann. § 692.1(5) (2012). Further, the Department of Human Services will perform a search of child and dependent adult abuse records to indicate whether the applicant is listed.  Iowa Code Ann. § 135C.33 (2012).

[69] Any person who owns, operates, staffs, participates in, or otherwise has contact with children receiving services from a children's center will be subject to a criminal and abuse registry background check.  Iowa Code Ann. § 237B.1(3) (2012).

[70] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.150(5) (2012).

[71] Id.

[72] See Iowa Code Ann. § 232.147(2) (2012). 

[73] Iowa Code Ann. §282.4(1) (2012).

[74] Id.

[75] Iowa Code Ann. §282.4(2) (2012).

[76] Murphy v. Bd. of Directors of Indep. Dist. of Marengo, 30 Iowa 429 (1871) (holding that a student could not be expelled for embarrassing and disruptive publications he created outside of school).

[77]  Id.; Iowa Code Ann. § 232.47(11) (2012).

[78] Iowa Code Ann. § 232.47(12) (2012).

[79] Iowa Code Ann.§§ 237.8(2)(a)(1)-(2) (2012).

[80]Iowa Code Ann.§ 237.8(2)(a)(2) (2012).

[81] Iowa Admin. Code r.441-108.9(d) (2012).

[82] Id.

[83] Iowa Code Ann.§ 232.52(4)(a) (2012).

[84]Iowa Code Ann.§ 232.52(5) (2010).

[85]Iowa Code Ann.§ 232.52(4)(b) (2012).

[86]Iowa Admin. Code r.491-6.2(1) (2012).

[87] Iowa Admin. Code r.491-6.2(1)(a) (2012).

[88] Iowa Admin. Code r.491-6.2(1)(h) (2012).

[89] Iowa Admin. Code r.491-6.5(c) (20112; Iowa Admin. Code r.491-6.1 (2012) (defining a “convictions” to include delinquent adjudications).

[90] Iowa Admin. Code r.491-6.5(c) (2012)

[91] Iowa Admin. Code r.491-6.5(d) (2012).

[92] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.103(3) (2012).

[93] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.103(1) (2012); Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.101(7) (2012)(defining “convicted” to include juvenile adjudications).

[94] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.103(5) (2012).

[95] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.103(5)(e) (2012).

[96] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.103(5)(d) (2012).

[97] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.121(1) (2012).

[98] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.121(1) (2012).

[99] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.121(2)(b)(1) (2012).

[100] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.121(3)(a) (2012).

[101] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.121(3)(b) (2012).

[102] Id.

[103] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.121(4) (2012).

[104] Id.

[105] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.121(5)(a) (2012).

[106] Id.

[107] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.121(5)(b) (2012). 

[108] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.128(2) (2012).

[109] Iowa Code Ann.§ 692A.128(7) (2012).

Resources/Links

Iowa State Public Defender
http://spd.iowa.gov/
Iowa Department of Justice Office of the Attorney General
http://www.iowa.gov/government/ag/prosecuting_training/index.html
Iowa Department of Human Rights- The Division of Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning
http://www.humanrights.iowa.gov/cjjp/
Iowa Judicial Branch
http://www.iowacourtsonline.org/Representing_Yourself/Juvenile_Court/
Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning- Juvenile Justice System Evaluation Capacity-Building in Iowa
http://www.jrsa.org/pubs/juv-justice/reports/iowa-capacity-building.pdf
Iowa County District Attorney’s Office
http://www.iowacounty.org/COURTS/qi-da.html