Mississippi

NOTE TO USER:

While every attempt has been made to ensure accuracy, local practices and procedures may vary.  We encourage every user to consult with an experienced juvenile justice practitioner in the jurisdiction to determine how best to proceed in any particular situation.        

 

 

Juvenile Collateral Consequences in the State of Mississippi

 

Understanding the Justice System

            According to Mississippi law, a youth or child is a person who is under the age of eighteen.[1] All proceedings involving a delinquent child or a child in need of supervision take place in Mississippi juvenile court, with the exception of proceedings involving children who commit acts falling within the original jurisdiction of the Circuit Court.[2] However, children who have not reached the age of eighteen and are on active duty in the armed forces do not fall within the youth court’s jurisdiction.[3] The youth court has automatic or original jurisdiction over a juvenile from the time the juvenile commits a qualifying offense through the juvenile’s twentieth birthday.[4]

            The Mississippi Circuit Court will have original jurisdiction over a juvenile if the juvenile commits an offense that, if committed by an adult, would be punishable by life imprisonment or death. The circuit court will also have jurisdiction if the juvenile commits or attempts to commit an offense involving the use of a deadly weapon.[5] The circuit court may also gain jurisdiction over a juvenile if the child is over thirteen years old, and the youth court – in its discretion and upon motion of the youth court prosecutor – determines that the juvenile should be transferred to an adult criminal court.[6] Although a juvenile will automatically fall under the jurisdiction of an adult court if alleged to have committed certain offenses, there is no situation in which a juvenile who originally falls under the youth court’s jurisdiction must be transferred from juvenile to adult court.[7] However, a child who has been transferred to an adult court may be de-certified or transferred back to the youth court if, after transfer proceedings, the circuit court judge finds that “there is no substantial evidence to support” the youth court’s initial order transferring the case to the circuit court.[8]

            The Mississippi youth court uses an “adjudication” process that is civil, not criminal, in nature.[9] The adjudication process may result in a disposition of delinquency or a determination that the child is in need of supervision; a court’s findings must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt.[10]  Any child over the age of ten who has committed a delinquent act may be adjudicated as such.[11]  A child over the age of seven may be adjudicated in need of supervision if the court finds there is a need for treatment or rehabilitation based on the commission of a delinquent act or act, habitual disobedience, habitual absence from school, or running away from home without good cause.[12]

            During an adjudicatory hearing, a court will only admit testimony that is under oath.[13] For delinquency and supervision adjudicatory hearings, a court may admit any evidence that may be admissible in a criminal court;[14] however, any out-of-court statement made by the youth in question is not sufficient to establish that a child is delinquent, unless it is corroborated by other evidence.[15]

            Juvenile proceedings are closed to the general public and do not use juries.[16] Court costs are free to the juvenile and are paid out of Mississippi’s general fund[17] and attorneys appointed to defend delinquent youth are required to complete state-approved annual juvenile justice training in order to continue serving in that capacity.[18]

            To initiate an adjudication proceeding, a youth court must authorize the filing of a petition.[19] To do so, a youth court prosecutor or another individual designated by the court will file a petition seeking adjudication with a court within five days from the date of a detention hearing if a child is in custody, or within ten days of the court’s authorization, if a child is not in custody.[20] Unless granted a continuance or the petition is uncontested, an adjudicatory hearing must be held within ninety days from the date a petition was filed, otherwise, the petition will be dismissed.[21] If a child is detained, the hearing must occur within twenty-one days.[22] Before a hearing actually begins, a court will explain to the parties the purpose of the hearings and the rights to counsel, to remain silent, to subpoena witnesses, to cross-examine, and to appeal.[23] If a youth is not represented, time will be provided to obtain counsel, and if the juvenile cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed.[24] After the evidence has been presented, the parties may give an oral argument.[25]

 

Notification of Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Arrest & Court Records

            There is currently no statutory obligation imposed on judges, attorneys, or others to notify a juvenile about the collateral consequences one may face as a result of a youth court adjudication. Nor is there a duty to inform parents or guardians about the collateral consequences a child may face.

 

Treatment of Juvenile Arrest Records

Are photographs and fingerprints routinely collected?

            Children within the youth court’s jurisdiction may only be fingerprinted or photographed if they are taken into custody for committing either of two types of offenses: (1) an offense that, if committed by an adult, would be deemed a felony, or (2) an offense involving the use or possession of a dangerous weapon.[26] Furthermore, if a law enforcement agency decides to fingerprint or photograph a juvenile, it must immediately inform the youth court that a juvenile has been fingerprinted and/or photographed and provide the youth court with the location of the fingerprints and photographs.[27] Moreover, an agency must maintain those records and may only forward them to another local, state, or federal bureau for the purposes of identifying a youth, after which the records must be immediately returned to the agency.[28] Fingerprints and photographs may also be forwarded to law enforcement agencies, youth court officials, and school officials for the purposes of criminal law enforcement and juvenile law enforcement.[29]

Is DNA routinely collected?

            Generally, juveniles in Mississippi need not provide DNA samples, however, juveniles convicted of a sex offense or those in state custody for committing a sex offense are required to submit DNA samples.[30]

Are juveniles’ arrest records made public?

            Generally, juvenile law enforcement records are confidential and private but may become public if a juvenile has been: convicted as an adult; twice adjudicated delinquent for a sex offense; twice adjudicated delinquent for acts that, if committed by an adult, would be considered felonies or the unlawful possession of a firearm; or adjudicated delinquent for murder, manslaughter, burglary, arson, armed robbery, aggravated assault, any sex offense, selling/manufacturing/distributing or possessing with intent to sell/manufacture/distribute a controlled substance, or driving while intoxicated.[31]

What juvenile arrest data may be distributed?

            Generally, juvenile arrest data is confidential.[32] For certain serious offenses and repeat offenses, however, a juvenile’s arrest data may become public record.[33] The only other way a juvenile’s arrest data may be distributed is if a court order is obtained.[34] In that case, the court will specifically describe which portions of the arrest records may be disclosed.[35]

Do police have the authority to distribute juvenile arrest data to employers, state agencies, or schools?

            Law enforcement agencies may only release arrest data to other public law enforcement agencies, youth court officials and school officials for the exclusive purposes of juvenile law enforcement and criminal law enforcement.[36] State law expressly prohibits police agencies from releasing arrest data to private individuals, firms, associations, corporations, and any public or quasi-public agency that does not engage in criminal law enforcement or juvenile law enforcement.[37]

            There is also an exception that allows law enforcement agencies to inform the Commissioner of Public Safety if a juvenile’s driver’s license is suspended for failing to take a sobriety test in accordance with the Mississippi Implied Consent Law.[38]

May police sell arrest records to private data mining companies?

            Law enforcement agencies may only release arrest data to other public law enforcement agencies, youth court officials and school officials for the exclusive purposes of juvenile law enforcement and criminal law enforcement.[39] State law expressly prohibits police agencies from releasing arrest data to private individuals, firms, associations, corporations, and any public or quasi-public agency that does not engage in criminal law enforcement or juvenile law enforcement.[40]

 

Treatment of Juvenile Court Records

Where and how are juvenile records stored?                                                           

            State law prescribes that juvenile court records are to be stored on a computer in the same manner in which circuit court records and dockets are stored.[41]

Who can access juvenile arrest records?         

            Juvenile arrest records include those records that are made or maintained by law enforcement or youth court prosecutors. Juvenile arrest records are strictly confidential and may only be disclosed in specific circumstances.[42] First, arrest records of a juvenile who has been tried in adult court and has been convicted in the adult court or a juvenile who has twice been adjudicated delinquent for a sex offense lose the entitlement to confidential records and the information becomes public.[43] Second, there are limited cases in which juvenile arrest records may be disclosed; in these limited instances, juvenile arrest records are treated similarly to juvenile court records. See the section entitled “Who can access juvenile court records?” for more information.[44]

What types of records will a juvenile involved with the youth court have?

             Juveniles can accumulate youth court records (which includes social records – see below for a definition), law enforcement records, and agency records.[45] The youth court system treats all records as all as confidential, except in limited circumstances.[46]

What is a youth court record and what kind of information does it contain?

             In Mississippi, a youth court record is comprised of six things: (1) a docket containing the name of the parties, the date of the petition, pleadings, and papers relating to the case, issuance and return of process; (2) all the papers and pleadings filed in the case; (3) all social records relating to the case (includes intake records, social summaries, medical examinations, mental health examinations, and transfer studies); (4) minute book containing all the orders of the youth court; (5) youth court proceedings and evidence; and 6) all information provided by the Administrative Office of Courts pursuant to a request.[47]  

What are social records?

            A social record is any record prepared for the youth court and includes intake records, social summaries of a youth’s personal and family history and environment, mental health evaluations, medical evaluations, studies done to determine whether a juvenile should be transferred to another court, and other social information.[48]

What are law enforcement records?

            Law enforcement records are all records involving children that are made and maintained by law enforcement officers, agencies, and youth court prosecutors.[49]

What are agency records?

            An agency record is any record involving a child that is maintained by the Mississippi Department of Human Services or any other state agency.[50]

Who can access juvenile court records?

            Juvenile court records and all records involving children (i.e. youth court records,[51] social records,[52] law enforcement records,[53] and agency records[54]) are strictly confidential and may only be disclosed in limited circumstances. Records may only be disclosed to the following recipients: (a) a judge of another youth court or member of another youth court staff; (b) the court of the parties in a child custody or adoption case in another court; (c) a judge of any other court or members of another court staff; (d) representatives of a public or private agency providing supervision or having custody of a child under order of the youth court; (e) any person engaged in a bona fide research purpose, provided that no information identifying the subject of the records will be made available to the researcher unless it is absolutely essential to the research purpose and the judge gives prior written approval, and the child, through his or her representative, gives permission to release the information; and (f) the Mississippi Employment Security Commission, or its duly authorized representatives, for the purpose of a child's enrollment into the Job Corps Training Program as authorized by Title IV of the Comprehensive Employment Training Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. § 923 et seq.).[55] Recipients of court-ordered otherwise confidential court records, are required to keep the records confidential and must obtain court’s permission in order to further disclose any information.[56]

            Note, however, that there are certain scenarios in which part or all of a juvenile’s records are considered public and thus, are not confidential. This means that no court order is needed for a recipient to access all or part of the child’s record. This includes records pertaining to juveniles twice adjudicated delinquent for acts that, if committed by an adult, would be considered felonies or the unlawful possession of a firearm, as well as juveniles adjudicated delinquent for murder, manslaughter, burglary, arson, armed robbery, aggravated assault, any sex offense, offenses related to controlled substances,[57] or offenses related to driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs.[58] In these cases, records are not confidential and names and addresses are made available to the public.[59]

            Agency records that are otherwise confidential may be disclosed to courts of competent jurisdiction.[60]

 

Sealing and Expunging Delinquency Arrest and Court Records

Do juveniles have the ability to seal or destroy arrest and court records?

            A youth or youth’s attorney has the right to apply to a court for the purpose of initiating the sealing of records if a youth qualifies.[61] A youth may qualify to have records sealed if upon reaching at least twenty years of age, if the youth court dismissed the case, or if the court sets aside an adjudication;[62] the process is free.[63] Records that may be sealed include all youth court records, law enforcement records, agency records, and all other documents maintained by the state, county, municipality, or other public agency.[64] Whether a court will seal a youth’s records, however, falls completely within a judge’s discretion.[65] Similarly, whether the court will unseal a youth’s records falls completely within the judge’s discretion.[66] A youth does not have the right to initiate the destruction of personal records; the judge is the only one who can initiate the destruction process.[67]

How does a juvenile seal or destroy a record?         

            The process for sealing youth records is different from the process of destroying records. Unless stated otherwise, the records that may be sealed or destroyed include all youth court records, social records, law enforcement records, agency records, and all other documents maintained by the state, county, municipality, or other public agency.[68]

            To have youth records sealed, either a judge must initiate the proceedings or any party to a youth’s case must apply to the court.[69] Records may be sealed if a youth has reached at least twenty years of age, the youth court dismissed the case, or if the court set aside the adjudication.[70] The process is free and may be initiated at any time.[71]

            For records to be destroyed, a youth court must independently decide to order the destruction, subject to approval by the Director of the Department of Archives and History.[72] A youth court has the authority to destroy all records except for medical or mental health records.[73] A youth court’s order will be distributed to all persons or agencies who maintain the records and will specifically describe the process in which the records are to be destroyed;[74] such agencies or persons are required to submit a written report confirming compliance with the judicial order.[75]

What happens if youth records are wrongfully distributed?

            It is illegal to disclose or encourage another to disclose juvenile records without proper authorization.[76] Violators face criminal liability and may also face civil liability.[77] A person found criminally liable is guilty of a misdemeanor, and can be fined no more than $1000 and/or imprisoned no more than one year.[78] A person held in civil contempt may be fined no more than $500 and/or imprisoned no more than ninety days.[79]

 

Employment Opportunities

Can juvenile records be viewed by potential employers?

            In Mississippi, all juvenile records are confidential and may only be disclosed to certain individuals.[80] An employer seeking access to a youth’s records will have to convince the judge that there are “compelling circumstances affecting the health and safety of [the] child and that such disclosure is in the best interests of the child.” If the judge is convinced, the employer may gain access to records, to the degree dictated by the judge.[81] Moreover, arrest records and other law enforcement records are strictly prohibited from being disclosed to any private or public agency that does not engage in criminal or juvenile law enforcement.[82]

Can employers view juvenile records that have been sealed or expunged?

            An expunged record is one that is destroyed completely.[83] As a result, these records are no longer accessible. On the other hand, a sealed record may be unsealed at the judge’s discretion.[84] Therefore, if an employer has proven to the court’s satisfaction that disclosure of a sealed record is in the child’s best interest, then the sealed record may be accessed.[85]                                                                              

How should juveniles respond to inquiries about a record on job applications?                

            If the application requests that the applicant disclose convictions, the individual may respond “none” in relation to all juvenile adjudications in youth court because a juvenile adjudication is not considered a conviction.[86]

 

Collateral Consequences Affecting Elementary & Secondary Education Students

Can a complaint or charge brought against a juvenile affect access to elementary or secondary education?

            Law enforcement agencies may release juvenile records (along with photographs and fingerprints) to a youth’s school without a court order if the youth has been taken into custody for an offense that, if committed by an adult, would be considered a felony or for committing an offense involving possession or use of a dangerous weapon.[87] The school officials need only submit a request to the law enforcement agency in writing.[88] The school may not use photographs and fingerprints, however, for any purpose other than for criminal and juvenile law enforcement purposes.[89]  School officials are required to maintain confidentiality of the records and must submit a signed document promising to keep the records confidential.[90]

If a youth is adjudicated delinquent or has admitted to committing a crime, is there any effect on elementary or high school education?

            If a school finds out about a youth’s involvement with the youth court, the underlying offense may provide the school with the basis to expel or suspend that student. Under Mississippi law, a school’s superintendant or principal has the power to suspend a student for “good cause” if the superintendant or principal concludes that the misconduct, on or off school property, will make the student a disruption in school or a detriment to other students and teachers.[91]

            In some instances, a youth court directly notifies the school when a student has been involved in the system.[92] For instance, a youth court will notify the principal of a school if a youth has committed an offense that was either a threat to him/herself or others or if school attendance is required for the child’s probation.[93]

If a youth has been expelled or suspended because of a charge or adjudication of delinquency is there any relief available?

            First and foremost, a parent or guardian of a suspended or expelled child has a due process right to a hearing upon request.[94] However, parents should refer to a child’s school’s code of conduct for more information about specific parental due process rights.

            Second, with some exceptions, a youth court may require any public school to enroll or re-enroll a student who is required to attend school. If  the student in question, however, was expelled or suspended because of offenses involving possession of a weapon on school grounds, threatening the safety or others, or committing acts or attempting to commit acts that result in death or physical harm to another, the court will not order a school to enroll or re-enroll that student.[95]

                                                      

Collateral Consequences to Receipt of Public Benefits & Privileges

Will a juvenile record affect receipt of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) benefits?

            The Mississippi Department of Human Services, the agency charged with regulating the TANF program[96] does not directly address the effect juvenile adjudications have on a family’s eligibility.  However, the purpose of TANF is to provide funds to needy families so that their children may be appropriately cared for.[97] Accordingly, if a juvenile is adjudicated delinquent or in need of supervision and falls under the custody of the state, the child will become ineligible to receive TANF benefits, and the child’s family will become ineligible unless there are other minor children in the parent’s custody.[98] Moreover, a family will lose its eligibility if it fails to inform Mississippi that a minor child is no longer in the household within five days from notification that the child will be absent from the home.[99]

Can a juvenile record affect the chances of working with children?

            If a juvenile adjudication resulted in a requirement to register with the state’s sex offender registry system, the individual will not be allowed to work with children.[100] Registered sex offenders may be not employed by or volunteer to work with any child care service providers.[101] In addition, registered sex offenders may not own or operate any child care service.[102]

Can a juvenile record (or a household member’s juvenile record) affect eligibility for public housing?

            Federal laws require public housing agencies to conduct criminal history background checks on applicants and deny admission to any applicant (or applicant’s household member) who is a lifetime registrant under a State’s sex offender registry.[103] Any juvenile who is at least fourteen must register with Mississippi’s sex offender registry if adjudicated delinquent for using force to commit rape, sexual battery, statutory or the attempt, conspiracy or assisting another to commit any.[104]

Can an arrest or an adjudication of a juvenile household member result in a family being evicted from public housing?                   

            Federal regulations permit public housing authorities to remove a household from public housing if it finds that one of the household members is or has engaged in drug-related criminal activity, violent criminal activity, or criminal activity that threatens other residents’ or the staff’s health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises.[105] A tenant may be evicted for the criminal activity another household member engaged in regardless of whether or not the tenant knew or should have known of the individual’s illegal activity.[106] The public housing authority may also rely on any reasonable belief of criminal activities by a household member; an arrest or conviction is unnecessary to remove a tenant from public housing.[107]

            For most offenses, a juvenile’s record(s) are not public and therefore, the public housing authority cannot easily verify whether the juvenile household member was engaged in criminal activity. However, as discussed above, there are certain scenarios in which part or all of a juvenile’s records are not considered confidential and are public records. As such, no court order is needed for a recipient to access all or part of a juvenile’s record. Furthermore, a landlord needs only a reasonable belief of criminal activity, and may not even need access to records to support the decision to evict.[108]

Can having a juvenile record affect a driver’s license or permit?

             A juvenile adjudicated delinquent for violating any offense in the Uniform Controlled Substances Law or for “using, distributing, possessing, manufacturing, selling, bartering, transferring, or dispensing” a controlled substance, counterfeit substance, narcotic, or other drug will lose the right to drive in Mississippi highways for six months.[109] A juvenile adjudicated delinquent for driving under the influence of a controlled substance will lose the right to drive in Mississippi highways for up to six months.[110] In both cases, if a juvenile is less than fifteen years old or does not have a driver’s license, the driving privileges suspension period will begin the day of the sentence and last up to six months after the individual turns fifteen or obtains a license.[111] Moreover, if an individual already has a suspended or revoked license at the time of the offense, the suspension period will begin upon termination of the existing revocation or suspension.[112]  

 

Special Offender Registries  (Sex, Domestic Violence, Predatory)

When will a juvenile have to register as a sex offender?        

             A juvenile over the age of thirteen must register with Mississippi’s sex offender registry if convicted of any registrable sex offense or attempted sex offense, or adjudicated delinquent for using force to commit rape, sexual battery, statutory or attempted statutory rape, conspiracy or assisting another to commit any of the above offenses.[113]

Who has access to the sex offender registry?       

            The records are only open to law enforcement; however, law enforcement has the authority to release to the public “relevant and necessary information” about sex offenders.[114]

Is there any relief for those who are on the sex offender registry?

            A first-time youthful offender who is at least fourteen years old at the time of an adjudication for rape or sexual battery may petition to be relieved from the duty to register after twenty-five years of registration.[115] Furthermore, sex offenses may be sealed along with the remainder of the juvenile’s criminal history information.[116]

What information is disclosed? And how is the information disclosed?

             Upon proper request, law enforcement agencies may provide the name, address, place of employment, crime registrant convicted of, date and place of conviction, photograph (and date of photograph), hair, eye color, race, height, sex, and date of birth, as well as any other information necessary to protect the public.[117] However, information about the victim may not be released.[118]  The information may be made available online or electronically.[119] However, law enforcement officers may also take the initiative to notify the community or certain members of the public exposed to circumstances or registrants that pose a threat to the safety of that community.[120]

 


 


[1]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-105(d) (2009).

[2]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-151(1) (2009).

[3]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-105(d) (2009).

[4]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-151(2) (2009).

[5]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-151(1)(a), (b) (2009).

[6]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-157(1) (2009).

[7]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-157(1) (2009).

[8]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-157(8) (2009).

[9]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-203(5) (2009).

[10]MISS. CODE ANN. §43-21-561(1), (2) (2009).

[11]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-105(i) (2009).

[12]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-105(k) (2009).

[13]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-559(1) (2009).

[14]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-559(1) (2009).

[15]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-559(2) (2009).

[16]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-203(3), (6) (2009).

[17]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-205 (2009).

[18]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-201(3) (2009).

[19]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-451 (2009).

[20]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-451 (2009).

[21]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-551(1) (2009).

[22]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-551(2) (2009).

[23]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-557(1)(d), (e) (2009).

[24]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-557(2) (2009).

[25]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-559(4) (2009).

[26]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(2) (2009).

[27]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(2) (2009).

[28]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(2) (2009).

[29]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(3) (2009).

[30]MISS. CODE ANN. § 45-33-37(2) (2009).

[31]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(5) (2009);  MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(8), (9) (2009).

[32]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(1) (2009).

[33]See MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(5) (2009); MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(8), (9) (2009).

[34]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(1) (2009).

[35]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(1) (2009).

[36]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(3) (2009).

[37]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(3) (2009).

[38]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(4) (2009).

[39]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(3) (2009).

[40]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(3) (2009).

[41]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-251(3) (2009).

[42] MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(1) (2009).

[43]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(5) (2009).

[44]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(1) (2009).

[45]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-105(u) (2009).

[46]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261 (2009).

[47]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-251(1) (2009).

[48]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-251(c)(i) (2009).

[49]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(1) (2009).

[50]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-257(1) (2009).

[51]See MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-251 (2009).

[52]See MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-251(c) (2009).

[53]See MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255 (2009).

[54]See MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-257 (2009).

[55]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(1) (2009).

[56]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(2) (2009).

[57] MISS. CODE ANN. § 41-29-139(a)(1) (2009).

[58]MISS. CODE ANN. § 63-11-30; MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(8), (9) (2009).

[59]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(8), (9) (2009).

[60]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(5)(c) (2009).

[61]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-263(2) (2009).

[62]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-263(1) (2009).

[63]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-205 (2009).

[64]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-105(u) (2009).

[65]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-263(2) (2009).

[66]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-263(2) (2009).

[67]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-265 (2009).

[68]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-105(u) (2009).

[69]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-263(2) (2009).

[70]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-263(1) (2009).

[71]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-205 (2009); MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-263(2) (2009).

[72]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-265 (2009).

[73]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-265 (2009); See also MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-253(3),(4) (2009).

[74]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-265 (2009).

[75]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-265 (2009).

[76]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-267(1) (2009).

[77]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-267(1),(2) (2009).

[78]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-267(1) (2009).

[79]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-153(2) (2009).

[80]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(1) (2009).

[81]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(1), (1)(g) (2009).

[82]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(3) (2009).

[83] MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-265 (2009).

[84] MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-263(2) (2009).

[85] MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-263(2) (2009); MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-261(1) (2009).

[86]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-561(5) (2009); MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-202(5) (2009).

[87]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(3) (2009).

[88]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(3) (2009).

[89]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(3) (2009).

[90]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-255(3) (2009).

[91]MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-9-71 (2009).

[92]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-621(3) (2009).

[93]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-621(3) (2009).

[94]MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-9-71 (2009).

[95]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-21-621(1) (2009).

[96]MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-17-7(1)(a), (b) (2009).

[97]42 U.S.C. § 601(a)(1).

[98]42 U.S.C. § 608(a)(1), (10)(A).

[99]42 U.S.C. § 608(a)(10)(A).

[100] MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-15-303(1)(a) (2009); MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-15-307(1) (2009).

[101] MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-15-303(1)(a) (2009); MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-15-307(1) (2009).

[102] MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-15-305 (2009).

[103] 24 C.F.R. § 982.553(a)(2)(i).

[104]MISS. CODE ANN. § 45-33-25(1), (2) (2009).

[105] 24 C.F.R. § 982.553(a)(1)(i); 24 C.F.R. § 982.553(a)(2)(ii).

[106] Dep't of Hous. & Urban Dev. v. Rucker, 535 U.S. 125, 134, 122 S. Ct. 1230, 152 L. Ed. 2d 258 (2002).

[107] 24 C.F.R. § 982.553(c).

[108] 24 C.F.R. § 982.553(c).

[109]MISS. CODE ANN. § 63-1-71(1) (2009).

[110]MISS. CODE ANN. § 63-1-71(1) (2009).

[111]MISS. CODE ANN. § 63-1-71(1) (2009).

[112]MISS. CODE ANN. § 63-1-71(1) (2009).

[113]MISS. CODE ANN. § 45-33-25(1), (2) (2009).

[114]MISS. CODE ANN. § 45-33-49(1) (2009).

[115]MISS. CODE ANN. § 45-33-47(2)(f) (2009).

[116]MISS. CODE ANN. § 45-33-55 (2009).

[117]MISS. CODE ANN. § 45-33-49(3), (4) (2009).

[118]MISS. CODE ANN. § 45-33-49(2) (2009).

[119]MISS. CODE ANN. § 45-33-49(4) (2009).

[120]MISS. CODE ANN. § 45-33-49(6), (7) (2009).

Resources/Links

Mississippi Juvenile Justice Advisory Committee
http://jjacms.org/goals.html
Mississippi Juvenile Justice Research Consortium
http://www.ssrc.msstate.edu/research-programs/crime-and-justice-research-unit/mississippi-juvenile-justice-research-consortium/
Department of Justice State Demographics- Mississippi
http://www.ojjdp.gov/pubs/gender/state-ms.html
Mississippi Office of Indignant Appeals
http://www.oia.ms.gov/training.html
United States Attorney's Office- Southern District of Mississippi
http://www.justice.gov/usao/mss/